The Water chapter of the 2018 Blackfeet Climate Change Adaptation Plan (BCCAP) is one of eight chapters created for the first formal, multi-sector climate change adaptation planning effort in the Blackfeet Nation, following the process described here. The Water chapter was developed through meetings with managers from the Blackfeet Environmental Office and then revised through face-to-face, telephone, and email correspondence.The first two sections, observed impacts and expected impacts, are sets of working hypotheses about climate change that are based on day-to-day observations and/or interpretations of climate change literature (e.g. the Montana Climate Assessment). These hypotheses were formed for the purposes of assessing climate change vulnerability and then strategizing adaptation goals and actions. This and other sections of the plan will be revisited and updated periodically as action items are implemented and adaptation efforts produce insights for future planning.
The goal of the Water Sector is to focus on planning to maintain water quantity and quality. This goal is important for maintaining sufficient water for municipal water use, irrigation, in-stream wildlife uses, recreation, and livestock water use. Water quality standards support drinkable, swimmable, and fishable waters, and attention is given to both surface and ground water, including wells. Water quantity management is under the jurisdiction of Water Resources Department, while water quality is under the jurisdiction of the Blackfeet Environmental Office (BEO). Water Quality Standards are under the BEO Water Quality Department. They are draft standards which mostly match federal standards, the default jurisdictionally until BEO receives delegation authority from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They are tribally approved. Water uses are under the jurisdiction of the Water Resources Department, now that the Water Compact has been approved. Amowatts and operation may need to be worked out between the tribe and the federal government. Swifcurrent operations need to be fixed to protect fish (Bull Trout) from dewatering.
More frequent and severe winds in the spring have already been observed. There are big downpours, but they dry up quickly because of the winds and warmer temperatures. There are no long-term changes noted at the local level yet.
In general, climate change is expected to decrease both water quantity and quality. Climate change will increase water temperatures, in lakes and streams, and lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Warmer water temperatures increase fish disease concerns. Increased temperature and lower water levels may cause the migration of tolerant fish and macroinvertebrate species into areas that were habitat for more intolerant species. Macroinvertebrates are a key indicator of water quality, as some can handle worse water quality, while others need higher water quality. Climate change is expected to stress macroinvertebrates.
Climate change will also change the hydrograph by increasing variation in the rates of water flow timing, for example the timing of peak runoff may impact fish spawning. More water may enter the system in the spring than it has in the past, pulsing through the system more quickly, with lower flows in the summer. Warmer temperatures may also not be conducive to cold-water species’ egg survivability.
Spring time floods may impact drinking water through erosion and sedimentation. While groundwater-fed communities might not be affected, communities fed by surface flows, like those drawing from Cutbank Creek, may experience poor water quality. Currently, sediment ponds at Cutbank Creek can be used to divert water when they know a sediment pulse is coming. Increased flood risk also raises risk of sewage overflow, posing health and safety risks from spreading contaminants. Recently, big floods, like the 2011 flood, have damaged infrastructure. Bigger floods in the future might cause damage to areas that are currently considered relatively safe from floods. Climate change may affect the riparian ecosystem and cause vegetation and stream geomorphology changes. Stream banks may not be able to contain floods and erosion, leading to a domino effect.
Changes in water quality and quantity will impact livestock water use and rangeland habitat, with changes in forage productivity and haying practices. It will also impact wildlife water use, and lead to poorer habitat. Less water may increase salinity. Too much salinity is bad for livestock to drink as water gets more concentrated with dissolved salts. Wildlife are generally able to migrate away from water with high salinity, but forced migration can cause them stress.
There is an increased risk of invasive species as water flows change and disturbances change. Bluegreen algae, didyoshenia, and zebra mussels are examples of species that could invade waterways as water warms and has more nutrients from agricultural practices and other sources of pollution.
Thermal fish kills could result from temperature highs and increased parasites that are tolerant to warm water increase. Dewatering aquifers causes reduced return flows to streams resulting in dewatered streams, especially late in the season after snow has melted. Water loss in reservoirs and streams will increase due to evapo-transpiration as the temperatures of air and water increase. Leaky pipes can burden storm water and sewer systems by the inflow of groundwater.
Quantified water rights may change as less water is available to junior users. Conflict and water theft are issues. Instream flows must be maintained to protect species of important. On Reservation water storage, both natural and constructed, should be a priority for policy makers , otherwise, water will flow to downstream users. Uses for water need to be developed and recorded, as in the Draft Water Quality Standards document. Examples of uses that need to be considered are recreation, irrigation, cultural, wildlife, aquatic life, domestic, etc. “Use or lose.”
The timeframe for impacts begins now and extends into the future, as some of the expected impacts are already being observed. The location of concern is reservation-wide. However, it is important to note that there is a rain gradient extending across the reservation, moving from more precipitation in the western part of the reservation to less precipitation in the eastern section. The rain gradient is expected to hold even as the climate changes. While changes in water availability are expected across the whole nation, plant, fish, and invertebrate species on the east side of the reservation may be more adapted to lower flows than on the west side. This is because water is more abundant on the west side of the reservation. Water quality is already lower on the east side of the reservation, which may mean plant, fish, and invertebrate species are already more tolerant of lower water quality and will be less impacted by further declines in water quality.
Probability of impacts to maintaining water quality and quantity
Potential Consequences of impacts
From a social standpoint, potential consequences are medium to high. Closures to recreation due to algal blooms pose a concern. Less drinking water could be a (high) consequence.
Potential consequences to culture are medium. Low water flows impact quality relocation sites for sweat lodges. Changes can impact culturally important wetland and floodplain plants.
Consequences for the economy are predicted to be low-medium. Consequences include costs to irrigation, saline seeps, fishing charges, water treatment, and less water supply. Impacts to agricultural economics are high, as people may have to buy hay, sell cattle to decrease stock, and haul water. Grazing allotments on public lands be impacted, and fees for cattle grazing (animal unit months) may change. Land prices may be impacted. Impacts to recreation-based tourism may have economic consequences.
Finally, from a legal perspective, consequences are predicted to be low-medium. A policy for use. Illegal use draft-ins, and violation of the water quality standards compact.
Water storage could be used to generate electricity. When tied to wind power, a water use cycle is created via “pumped hydro”.
The tribe needs to focus the water resources branch into management of water use, in other words, have a water master and a hydrologist to oversee the vast resource of water from the compact in the amount of 800,000-acre-feet of water per year.
The exposure is medium to high.
Sensitivity is medium. The western side of the Reservation is more sensitive to changes in climate, while the eastern side is more adaptive to change and less sensitive. More information is needed about thresholds; if species are on the edge of what they can tolerate, then they may be affected. Some species may be very sensitive to climate impacts during particular times of year, or particular times of their life history.
Adaptive capacity is low on the western side of the Reservation, and high on the eastern side. Adaptive capacity depends on the quality of the habitat, human land use impacts, and other factors. It may vary from place to place.
Vulnerability is high on the western side of the Reservation, and it is low on the eastern side. Vulnerability will depend on species-level tolerance for the changes.
The estimated risk is high on the western side of the Reservation, and low to medium on the eastern side.
Priority is medium to high.
Blackfeet Environmental Office
1) Reduce the frequency of higher-intensity floods in order to reduce erosion, property damage, and habitat damage or change.
2) Assess floodplain to mitigate future property damage
3) Ensure that downstream users have access to sufficient water flows and water quality
The priority for maintaining water quality and quantity is medium to high.
Preparedness goals: strategies and actions
Goal 1: Reduce the frequency of higher-intensity floods in order to reduce erosion, property damage, and habitat damage or change
a) Promote wetlands, floodplains, and riparian areas health because they offer capacity to mitigate floodwater and filter and store water
1) Protect key wetlands, restore wetlands, and divert water to wetlands in order to boost water storage and groundwater recharge
2) Identify degraded riparian areas and employ stream restoration and beaver mimicry work, where appropriate
3) Live trap and relocate beavers to restore wetlands
Goal 2: Assess floodplain to mitigate future property damage
a) Assess floodplain to mitigate future property damage
b) Utilize mapping software (e.g. Global Information Systems) to better understand the geographical setting of the watershed
1) Map the floodplain
2) Map channel migration (how a river may move in the future)
3) Enhance mapping and monitoring of water use across reservations
4) Chart water wells, septic systems, water extraction sites, stock water reservoirs, and oil wells
Goal 3: Ensure that downstream users have access to sufficient water flows and water quality
a) Promote regeneration of aquifers through strategic water storage, irrigation, and land use
1) Build reservoirs
2) Work with farmers and ranchers to reduce use of pesticides
3) Conserve water through better irrigation practices (i.e. use as tool to spread water out to recharge shallow aquifers)
4) Employ snow fences to trap snow
5) Identify water saving techniques (i.e. low flow toilets, rain-water capture)
Required and Existing Authority/Capacity
Planning for all future concerns needs to start immediately. It is important to set a five-year plan. Authorities and capacities already exist within the tribe. They include the Water Resources Department (water use permitting for all uses), the Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Agriculture Department, the Housing Authority, the Tribal Council, and schools. Potential partners within and outside the tribe include: the Blackfeet Environmental Office, Blackfeet Water Resources, the Blackfeet Land Department, School District 9, the Helena-Lewis and Clark National Forest, the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Blackfeet Community College, Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Geological Survey, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Montana Department of Environmental Quality, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Indian Health Services, and non-governmental organizations.
Partners and Potential Funding Sources
There are many potential funding needs. Storage dams are one example of a need. Millions will be needed. The US government and the State of Montana are two potential funding sources.